Desert island albums #1: Joni Mitchell — Hejira (1976)

In BBC Radio 4’s venerable programme Desert Island Discs, a guest is invited to imagine themselves cast away on a desert island, and allowed to choose eight pieces of music to take with them. (The quaint “discs” in the title of course refers to gramophone records; I for one welcome the BBC’s refusal to retitle the programme Desert Island Digital Audio Files.)


I think this is a fascinating exercise, and one that I’ve often toyed with doing myself. But as noted in my “what I’ve been listening to in Year X” posts [2009, 2010, 2011, 2012], I listen much more to albums than to individual songs, so my habits don’t really fit the Desert Island Discs format.

Well, badgers to that: this is my blog, and I can write it how I want. So I picked eight albums that I love, and that I’ve loved for several years (to avoid the inevitable flavour-of-the-month bias). My only rule was that no artist could be represented more than once. My plan is to write fairly extended essays about each one, in no particular order. So without further ado, here is the first: Joni Mitchell’s 1976 folk/jazz/rock album Hejira.

I had a terrible time choosing just one of Joni Mitchell’s albums. An earlier draft of this list had her 1971 album, Blue, and there are all sorts of good reasons for that. I’ve loved Blue since I first heard it in 2000, but for a while in 2013 it gripped me intensely in a way that nothing has since I first started listening to the Beatles in 1980. I listened to almost literally nothing else for a solid week. Whenever I was on public transport, I listened to it on the iPod. I’d have a book with me, too — I read all the time — but I kept finding my attention being pulled away from what I was reading to what I was hearing. Because Blue is just superb, the most intense yet ambiguous confessional folk album you could ever wish to hear.

Everywhere the songs contradict themselves. Joni protests that she has control of her heart — “I could drink a case of you, but I would still be on my feet” — but the fragile, strung-out delivery belies that self-possession. “Richard, you haven’t changed”, she tells an old flame, but he evidently has. At the end of that song, in which Joni rages against Richard’s cynicism, she finds herself drunk, alone in dark cafe, just as cynical as him. Even the hippie-dopey California, an ode to home, is shot through with rueful cameos, and sense of loss at everything she’s left behind. All these complexities are carried by music that’s always sparse — always dominated by Joni’s voice and her own accompaniment on a single instrument — but that instrument switches between guitar, piano and dulcimer. Surprisingly it’s the last of these — an instrument that I usually loathe — that turns out to be most effective on this album: its insistent melancholy drone underscores the wearied quality of the lyrics while leaving plenty of room for Joni’s voice to fill the space with everything from the rueful frivolity of All I Want to the plaintive reminiscence of A Case of You.

So Blue is an absolutely tremendous album. And I mention this because I now want to explain why Hejira is even better.

Five years on from Blue, Joni’s voice has changed significantly — in both senses. The sound emerging from her throat is deeper, harder. The smoking has begun to have an effect, but not yet a detrimental one. She sounds less like a girl and more like a woman. But her voice in the artistic sense has also changed by the time of Hejira. Blue wears its heart on its sleeve; it’s nakedly emotional, painfully vulnerable. By contrast Hejira, at least on the surface, is a much more self-possessed record — the work of someone who seems more at ease with herself; or, at least, more in command of herself.

Musically, too, Hejira is more sophisticated than Blue. Where the earlier album mostly used a keening voice over sparse single-instrument accompaniment, the words of Hejira float over a desert landscape of harmonically ambiguous jazz. Sometimes propulsively driving, as in Black Crow and especially the opener Coyote, sometimes hesitant and exploratory, as in Amelia and Song for Sharon, the musical substrate of Hejira never takes the obvious path, instead finding ways to challenge the listener.

That makes the album hard work. There’s no denying it. You can listen to, say, Joni’s Ladies of the Canyon album and immediately like and appreciate songs like Morning Morgantown, Big Yellow Taxi and The Circle Game. (Thinking about it, that’s probably the best album for a Joni Mitchell newcomer to start with.) To a lesser extent, you can listen to Blue and enjoy All I Want and California. Hejira is a much less approachable album. There’s really no song on it that invites the listener in: you have the feeling that Joni wrote and recorded it mostly for herself, and that if anyone else likes it too then that’s just a bonus.

Instead of a handful of standout tracks and some filler, Hejira forms a coherent and consistent whole, intricately constructed with every song seeming to tie in with its predecessors and successors. Joni is usually classified as a folk singer, and as such would probably balk at the description of Hejira as a concept album: but it is one, just as much as Dark Side of the Moon or Days of Future Passed. The whole album consists of road songs of one kind or another: the reportage of Coyote, the lament of Amelia, the second-hand nostalgia of Furry Sings the Blues, and of course the meditation that is the title track, Hejira itself (the title is from the Arabic word for journey or pilgrimage).

The emotional thread that runs through the songs is a deep-seated ambivalence about love and commitment, about solitude and companionship. A few of the songs spell this out: Song for Sharon is pretty explicitly a self-administered therapy session in which Joni tries to get to the bottom of her own conflict between the longing for love and the need to be free. A Strange Boy is the closest thing to a conventional love song, but it’s replete with What Ifs and Buts and Maybes. Blue Motel Room, the album’s stylistic outlier with its cabaret-blues feel, finishes up with an offer to her man: “You lay down your sneaking round the town, honey / And I’ll lay down the highway”. Yet even that reconciliation, in the album’s penultimate song, is immediately undone by the closer, Refuge of the Roads: it’s the closest Hejira approaches to an emotionally straightforward statement, and it comes down firmly on the side of solitude, of perpetual change, and of isolation.

What makes all this beautiful instead of merely exasperating is how perfectly the music complements the lyrics. Coyote forensically documents a one-night-stand that never had the potential to be anything more: “No regrets, Coyote / we just come from such different sets of circumstances”, the song begins. Then “There’s no comprehending / Just how close to the bone and the skin and the eyes / And the lips you can get / And still feel so alone / And still feel related“. The music reflects the tone of the song: the combination of propulsive electro-acoustic guitar and high bass harmonics somehow contrive to feel both desperate and coolly ironic, detached: there is an emotional reserve, something held back, and the refrain line perfectly captures that pull-push self-deception. “You just picked up a hitcher”, she sings: “a prisoner of the white lines of the freeway”.

Amelia is even more ambiguous musically. Lyrically, the song is ostensibly addressed to pioneering aviator Amelia Earhart, who was lost at sea in 1937. But this is blended so completely with first-person narrative that it’s hard to tell where the lines are, or even whether there are any. “Oh Amelia, it was just a false alarm”, she repeatedly sings, but is she really warning herself? By the final occurrence of the refrain line, there is a definite shift towards the autobiographical:

I pulled into the Cactus Tree Motel
To shower off the dust
And I slept on the strange pillows of my wanderlust
I dreamed of seven-forty-sevens
Over geometric farms
Dreams, Amelia: dreams and false alarms.

I’ve referred to refrain lines in both of the opening songs, and they are a theme that recurs throughout Hejira. Not one of the songs has anything like a conventional chorus: just a single line that bookends wandering discursive verses, drawing them together. There’s not even that in some songs: for example, Song For Sharon runs for nine minutes without once repeating a line. This, I am sure, is by design. Hejira rejects the comforting familiarity of a chorus in favour of a constant restless wandering. That’s reflected in the harmonic language, too. It’s difficult or impossible to nail down what chords are being used in many of the songs; for some, I could hardly even say what key they’re in. Most albums would use this harmonic tension as a setup, to make the resolution more satisfying when it comes. But Hejira‘s not interested in resolutions. Amelia wilfully refuses to come to rest in a recognisable key because Amelia herself can never rest; and neither can Joni.

Hejira is impossible to sing along with. It’s not just the lack of choruses. Even if you learn all the verses, the timing of Joni’s delivery is so idiosyncratic that you just can’t track it. It’s an album that positively rejects performance by other singers. I’ve used multiple songs from Blue at folk clubs, but I doubt I will ever attempt any of Hejira‘s songs. It’s not just that they’re difficult; it’s that they’re so personal, so rooted in specific incident, particular states of mind and transitions of thought, that trying to reproduce them — or worse, reinterpret them — would feel like a violation.

Paradoxically, though, the extremely personal is the route to the universal. Songs that try to work in universals have an unfortunate tendency to degenerate into bland generalities — or worse, cliches. Like Paul Simon, Joni Mitchell goes in the opposite direction, using a few carefully picked specifics to sketch a situation that, while personal, has universal resonances. In my own life I’ve never felt the way that Joni does in the songs of Hejira; but where my own thoughts and feelings have ever approached aspects of those states, Hejira illuminates them. It’s an album that leaves me with better developed empathy. It makes me understand what it would be like to be someone else.

If there is an emotional arc in Hejira, it’s a gradual shift from the no-consequences hunger and desperation of Coyote to the resignation to, or even embrace of, loneliness in Refuge of the Roads. But it’s never quite that simple with Joni. Every song is hedged about with reservations, with the promise or threat that tomorrow’s conclusion will be different from today’s. There are no conclusions to be had.

In the end, Hejira is a sad album: not because of what it sets out to do, which it does perfectly, but because of what it says about Joni. The music may be more mature than that of Blue; the voice is certainly that of a woman who has grown. But for all that, at the core of Hejira there’s still a little lost girl who hasn’t worked out whether or when or even how to commit to a relationship. No amount of driving across America and chronicling the people and places can hide that.

[Buy at or at]


43 responses to “Desert island albums #1: Joni Mitchell — Hejira (1976)

  1. futilelaneswapper

    I was introduced to Blue in the late 70s, and like you I couldn’t stop listening to it. I do agree with your analysis about the accessibility of Hejira. Its an album that requires a bit of work, but it definitely repays the effort you put into it. I think it was her last truly great album: Don Juan’s Reckless Daughter continues the exploratory spirit and style of Hejira, but for me at least, the latter is too self-conscious in its experimentalism and I was never totally convinced by it.

    Generally speaking, I find all her collaborative work less rewarding than the personal stuff, though I do like Mingus. However it seems to me that at some point she seemed to stop experiencing life and instead just started commenting on it. Consequently, I don’t think she ever fully recaptured the intimate authenticity of Blue and Hejira. We have a digital drawer full of her stuff but these are the two I constantly return to.

    It was unutterably sad to see a recent video of her on stage in Canada. The drugs and erratic life style have exacted a terrible price, and she is clearly very damaged. But for a wonderful reminder of what she was like at her in her early years just prior to the release of Blue, check out this performance of “California”:

  2. Richard G. Whitbread

    Can’t WAIT to read your review of ‘Lights Out’, Michael… ;-)

  3. Vince, it’s a shame to read your sense that Heijira was Joni’s last great album, since that’s actually as far as I’ve got in my own listening. We actually own three albums in the box-set which I’ve not yet listened to at all: The Hissing of Summer Lawns (which I skipped over because Sarah kept saying how great Hejira is), and the last two. Now I’m saving them up. To my surprise, Fiona’s mostly listened to the last two, and loves them.

    Is there video of that Canadian stage show? I’d like to see it for myself. The California video is disturbing because the sound and visual tracks are so out of sync.

    Richard, I’m afraid Lights Out missed the cut — although it did make the long-list of 24 that I chose the final eight from. But there are a couple of albums that you’ll remember from listening to them in the 80s in Bishop’s Stortford. I won’t give away which ones they are.

  4. I’m not sure I listen to Joni Mitchell as much as I should. I’d have to confess to finding some of the earlier stuff unendurably hippy-dippy, to the point where it just reminds me of Phoebe from ‘Friends’. But a similar thing is true for Kate Bush. It’s not that she got good, just that she got good enough to tell a good song from a bad. And that doesn’t stop me listening to her! ‘Blue’ and ‘Hejira’ would certainly also be my favourites, from what I’ve heard. But then I haven’t heard for example ‘Don Juan’.
    “Everywhere the songs contradict themselves” seems to me the encapsulating point. Songs often end up by default like essays or speeches, amassing verses like a series of arguments. End-of-relationship songs, for example, tend to be either pithy put-downs or plaintive expressions of regret – “so long loser” or “can’t live without you”. But something like ‘Case of You’ manages to convey both at the same time. (“You’re in my blood like holy wine/ You taste so bitter and so sweet.”)
    Which of course feels more like an actual end of relationship, and the contradictory feelings all that stirs up, than most songs on an otherwise over-subscribed subject. Everywhere our lives contradict themselves. We can listen to songs which rearrange everything into a neater order to make it feel more manageable, or to songs which go ahead and reflect that.
    And in what seems like a related point, songs often sound simultaneously delicate and strong. ‘Amelia’ sounds like its being borne along by gusts of air, but it also conveys the sense it could withstand almost anything.
    Okay, after ‘Blue’and ‘Hejira’, what’s the consensus on the next-best?

  5. First, let me say that it may well be that none of the albums Joni recorded after “Hejira” has been as great. But then, no one has recorded an album as great as “Hejira”. futileaneswrapper, it’s odd that you say that you don’t like the “collaborative” albums a much as her others, since many consider “Hejira” to be the most collaborative of her works, given the extraordinary playing of Jaco Pastorius on that album, and how far up in the mix his bass work is. As for your dismissal of Joni as burned out by drugs and an erratic lifestyle, that’s a strange claim indeed. First of all, most of Hejira was written while Mitchell was high on cocaine, yet its greatness is undeniable. Second, Mitchell’s use the drug didn’t last for much more than a year or so, and as such it’s hard to pin any decline on that use. Most attribute the loss of her voice to smoking, and I will grant you that nicotine is a drug. As for her “erratic” lifestyle, I am not sure that traveling from one’s country home in B.C. to one’s mansion in Bel Air is all that taxing. Also it should be said that Mitchell is 70, and age can take its toll on anyone: while Mitchell is preternaturally gifted, she’s still human. At any rate, though her voice is shot, her mind is as sharp as ever, and her phrasing is still sublime. Here’s the Canadian performance and some recent interviews for those who wish to judge for themselves:

    lucidfrenzy, as to what’s the next-best, I would refer you to, which is the official Joni site and one of the best fan sites on the net. Their poll lists the following as the next-best: “For The Roses,” “Court and Spark,” and “The Hissing of Summer Lawns.” Of the post-Hejira albums, “Night Ride Home,” “Turbulent Indigo” and “Both Sides Now” are favorites.

    Mike, here’s a video of the full show that Joni did for the BBC (affectionately known as the “Pink Dress Concert”:

  6. Mike, I’m glad I influenced your listening to this album- I do often find myself singing her lyrics under my breath. Although I’ve never experienced many of the ‘specifics’ of her life there is much that rings true. I believe a true artist produces something which resonates in a unique way with each observer/ listener and makes them look/ think afresh..

  7. patroklos, thanks for the video links. I’ll look forward to watching the interviews when I have time, but that Furry Sings the Blues was truly horrible. I had to go back and listen to the original after it had finished, just to cleanse my ears. What a shame.

    Sarah, I guess I would have reached Hejira in the end, on my slow trek through Joni’s catalogue, but I’m glad you persuaded me to leap ahead to it. In truth I’m surprised you like it so much — as I said above, I think it’s a really difficult album, certainly compared with something like Ladies of the Canyon. Did you, like me, have to listen to it over and over before it really got hold of you?

    Meanwhile, Fiona’s really enjoying the box-set … her two favourites seem to be Don Juan’s Reckless Daughter and Mingus, no joke.

  8. No, actually, I always loved it & didn’t find it difficult at all. I enjoyed the jazz-feel immediately..

  9. Then I award you the treasured Way More Sophisticated Musician Than Me prize. I found it really dense and cryptic. Still, it seems to have worked out OK :-)

  10. Hah, I shall indeed treasure that award.. :)

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  14. This is a wonderful review of an album that’s becoming one of my favorites. I was searching Google for Hejira reviews, and I’m glad I came across this one. Thanks for the insight into what makes the album so moving (and so different from Blue).

  15. Thanks, Ben, that means a lot to me!

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  17. Interesting! Now i have gone and searched out all my Joni albums to listen to again with fresh ears – maybe! I was introduced to Joni aged 16 by my boyfriends cool older brother. Hejira was the first one I heard – and like Sarah I instantly loved it – it has Song For Sharon and so that was a good start. I agree it is frustratingly hard to sing to though. Court and Spark was the next one I heard and that has the fantastic “twisted”. Being 16 and a little bit big headed, i thought; this is a song for and about me! Plus i could sing it – just about! After that came Blue. Like Mike, I still put Hejira first. Ladies of the Canyon is pleasant and good to sing, but not gripping, whilst the Hissing of summer Lawns – disappoints – but maybe I need to listen to it more. It is satisfying that something I loved at 16 (when part of it was potentially because it was cool because it was not cool) I still find fabulous 25 years later!
    As a recent suggestion – in case you have not come across her – I highly recommend Laura Marling.

  18. Thanks for the recommendation — I’m always looking for new artists. I’ll check out Laura Marling.

    BTW., if you don’t already have all the early Joni Mitchell albums, you should definitely check out the absurdly cheap Joni Mitchell box-set. I already owned five of the included albums, but bought the box-set anyway because it was so much cheaper than buying the other five separately!

    Broadly I’d agree with your assessments of the albums, although I have been saving Hissing up for myself, deliberately not listening to it because I want to save it up.

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  25. 1. Hejira is my all-time favorie album, and I enjoyed your review.
    2. In what way is Blue (or any of her albums, for that matter) a folk album? It is a pop album with spare instrumentation.

  26. Murray, you ask an interesting question. As always, the boundaries between one musical genre and another are fluid: see for example, the many discussion of the hard rock/heavy metal distinction in the comments on my various Heavy Metal Timeline posts.

    My sense that Joni Mitchell was established as a “folk singer” early in her career — an estimation that to me makes perfect sense in light of her first album, at least for some definitions of “folk”. And once such an association is established, it’s often difficult to shift. But no-one would doubt for a moment that Joni transcended folk music along every possible dimension: harmonic sophistication, melodic adventure, lyrical subtlety, psychological depth.

    My problem with describing her as “pop” is that it tells you absolutely nothing. It’s not so much a genre as an overarching metacategory that encompasses, well, pretty much everything except classical. It’s not so much inaccurate as uninformative. But something like “folk-pop” would do the job.

  27. Hi Mike, I’ve been on Mt.Hejira for the last 24 hours and loved your post. Great piece! I think where Hejira beats Blue is in its musicality. It’s so much richer sonically. Cheers- Bhaskar
    PS : It also moved me to update my music blog today. If time and inclination allow, it’s here :

  28. That’s some beautiful writing, Bhaskar. Thanks for the link.

  29. Thanks much Mike ! I had a look around your blog as well. It’s a terrific mix of some very interesting things ! Shall be following .. . Cheers

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  33. Wunderbar. You’ve captured why and how knocks His Bobness into a very cocked hat. Thankyou.

    Next up? Let’s hope those summer lawns get your juices going too!

  34. I’ve only just started making my way into Summer Lawns. I have to admit it’s not immediately grabbed me; but to be fair, neither have most of Joni’s albums. I know from experience how very richly they repay the work of getting to know them, so I’ll be pushing on!

  35. it’s 2019 – i’m house sitting with my dog and listening to Hejira – an album that has been in two of the houses I’ve looked after recently. I am a songwriter and currently devoid of vocab and the ability to analyse (though I love it) so it has been lovely reading your thoughts. I’m just holed up in the rain with a guitar and wanting my fingers and impulses to wander over the fretboard like Joni on the restless road. Here’s to a gorgeous and vapourous album…and let’s not forget the stunning playing of Jaco Pastorius.

  36. I raise a glass to you, Christine! Best of luck in finding inspiration for your own songwriting in the genius of Joni Mitchell: my own experience has, sadly, been the opposite. The quality of her work paralyses me creatively.

  37. Revelator- Gillian Welch
    Hejira- Joni Mitchell
    Aeroplane – neutral milk hotel
    Hazards of love- decemberists
    Dark side – pink Floyd
    Bon iver- 22 a million
    Art farmer- yesterday’s thoughts

    I think those are the only perfect albums I own. And I used to hate Joni Mitchell as a teenager. Grew up on green day and nirvana and was a punk ass kid. Hejira changed everything for me. It is an experience. And enjoyable and educational every time. Prob the only Joni Mitchell album I truly love as a whole but I weirdly got into chalk mark for some reason. Lakota is so damn good.

  38. Interesting list, thank you! Of the three of these I know, I obviously agree wholeheartedly on Hejira and Dark Side. I have Time (The Revelator) but have only listened to it three times — it’s not in a style that I am inclined to like. But I’ll give it another go, on the basis that you rank it with those other two. Knowing what you do of my musical tastes, which one of the other four albums would you recommend to me?

  39. Hazards of love is like a prog rocck opera. There are parts with crazy metal riffs and other parts with acoustic ballads. It is a love it or hate it album and you kind of have to listen to the whole thing in order. I don’t think it really had any commercial hits or singles, except for the rake’s song. I think i fell in love with the album because there is a very cool animated video that was made with the album.

    Aeroplane over the sea is a concept album about Anne Frank. Some people really hate the singer’s voice but it really grew on me. The lyrics are crazy and it is kind of noise rock with horns and a few acoustic gems. I guess I really love concept albums. I’ve played this for some friends who can’t stand the noise but others loved it.

    I found the art farmer album at a thrift store. I never heard of him before but it was a CD from Japan so I picked it up just based on that and the cool artwork. I am not a jazz guy at all but this album relaxes me and gets me really calm when I am in a hectic mood. Give this one a try. It is hard to find this on vinyl but YouTube has the full album for free. Perfect as background music when you want to wind down after work or when you are having a bad day.

    Bon iver 22 a million is the newest album that I cannot get enough of. I would highly recommend checking this one out. There is a live npr concert of the album which blows my mind. The songwriting is great and he uses some crazy effects. Even with the technical, weird sounds he creates, the songs are really catchy and the entire album works for me. I like to run to this album as it puts me in a weird place where I kind of disappear.

    Speaking of disappearing, I prob should have put ok computer and astral weeks on my lists, as both of those albums kind of put me in a trance state. More so astral weeks but I have not listened to that album in years. Might have to try it again today.

  40. Really interesting overviews, Ray, thank you! I will have plenty to get my teeth into when I start up my 2020 listening. I am right with you on OK Computer, which seems all but flawless; but I’ve never been able to persuade myself that Astral Weeks (or anything by Van Morrison) is more than OK.

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